Saturday, September 5, 2015

Educational articles | Common diseases | that occurs in the human body

       Good health is not only freedom from sickness and diseases but a complete absence of anxiety, social and psychological tensions. Any abnormality in the functioning of the body is termed as disease. There are diseases like cholera, tuberculosis, common cold, chicken pox, typhoid, diarrhoea and gastroenteritis, polio and rabies.

      In our daily life, we continuously interact with various elements of environment.  Some unfavourable environmental factors may adversely affect our body and cause some disease. These factors may be inside the body or outside the body. The factors inside the body are malfunctioning of an organ or part, hormone or immune system of the body. The outside factors include lack of diet, influence or effect of disease causing organisms and environmental pollutants. The diseases caused by inside factors can be prevented and cured by taking medical treatment. Diseases caused by outside factors , on the other hand, can be prevented and cured by taking wholesome food,  keeping  the environment clean and proper habits.

      Some disorders or defects or defects in the body may arise during the period of growth and development. Such ailments may be present from birth. Some of these may also be acquired and develop after birth. Thus , the diseases or ailments may be due to infections, malfunctioning of vital organs of the body, nutritional deficiencies, allergies or some other factors.


Let us discuss about the diseases one by one:-
Cholera- Cholera is a highly infectious disease. It affects gastrointestinal tract, which comprises organs like stomach and intestines. It has persisted for thousands of years and breaks out in overcrowded places. It affects the people of all age groups .
The symptoms of cholera include vomiting, acute diarrhoea and muscular cramps. A person suffering from cholera may pass stool 30-40 times in a day. The stool appears like "rice water". Excessive loss of water results in dehydration in the body, accompanied by fever. This results in intense thirst, dry tongue, sunken eyes. The out put of urine is reduced. If the state of dehydration continues , it could be fatal. To avoid the dehydration, Oral Rehydration Solution(ORS) should be given to the patient at regular intervals. If any person shows the above stated symptoms, a physician should be consulted immediately.

Tuberculosis-   Tuberculosis, generally denoted by the letters 'TB' (from Tubercle bacillus), is an infectious disease. It is transmitted mainly by air through phlegm (balgam) or sputum of a patient.TB is caused by a bacterium named Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Once it enters a living body, it releases a toxin called tuberculin. This bacteria can invade all parts of the body & damage the tissues. The lungs are the favourite site for TB infection. In some cases, the other parts of the body, like alimentary canal and bones, also get affected.

The symptoms of tuberculosis appear gradually in a patient. There is a loss of appetite and weight , resulting in an overall weakness. Persistent cough for more than 3 weeks and low grade lever are the earliest symptoms of TB. Sometimes, the presence of blood in the sputum, pain in the chest and out of breath feeling on exertion are the symptoms of the advanced stage of  tuberculosis. There may be a swelling of the lymph nodes in the children suffering from TB.

Typhoid-   Typhoid is an acute infection of the intestine, caused by the  bacterium Salmonella typhi. The disease  is very common among children and occurs throughout the year. The consumption of contaminated food, water, milk and its products, unwashed raw vegetables and fruits results in the spread of this disease. Indiscriminate defection and urination by patients also help in the spread of infection through soil,water, food, and flies.

Weakness and high fever , lasting for 2-3 weeks, are the main symptoms of typhoid. Body pain, headache, constipation,slow pulse rate and coated tongue are other symptoms of the disease,diarrhoea many occur along with abdominal discomfort.

Polio- Polio or poliomyelitis is a disease, which has been known from ancient times.It is caused by one of the smallest known viruses called Poliovirus. It enters the body through food or water  and  ultimately reaches central nervous system and blood stream. there the viruses destroy the cells of the spinal cord that are responsible for the control of muscle activities. As a result , the muscles of the polio infected person fail to carry out their normal functions. It is a kind of paralysis. The effects of paralysis are more on the limbs, particularly legs.

Chicken pox-Chicken pox is an acute infectious disease caused by a virus, named Vericella zoster. This disease mostly occurs in children under the age of 10 years. It is generally transmitted from one person to another by direct contact with clothing or other articles soiled with discharges from an infected person. The most suitable period for the transmission of the disease is about 2 days before the appearance of rashes , and up to 14 days afterwards.

The symptoms of chicken- pox are mild or moderate fever, pain in the back, shivering and malaise. In severe cases, almost the whole body may be covered with rashes. The rashes first appear on the trunk and  later spread upwards to the face and downwards to the limbs. Formation of scabs begins 4 to 7 days after the appearance  of the rashes.

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